Researches B. A. Pirogova (198 showed that the decisive factor defining physical efficiency of people of middle age is general endurance which is estimated in size MPK.
In this regard everything that is beyond optimum training loads, is not necessary from the point of view of health. Optimum loadings provide increase of aerobic opportunities, the general endurance and working capacity, i.e. level of a physical state and health. A problem of improving physical culture - strengthening of health by development of the general (but not special) endurance and working capacity.
The most effective influence on growth of functionality of an organism, activization of muscle proteins, to increase in speed, force and endurance renders to intensity. Therefore at determination of size of loading proceed from admissible intensity. Loading volume – a necessary basis for preparation of an organism, its systems to the subsequent accumulation of intensity.
The attending physician and the methodologist faces need of rationing of loading throughout all course of treatment, both when performing separate exercises, and when determining total influence of all types of physiotherapy exercises. Thus it is necessary to estimate loading size correctly.
The most informative is the PWC170 test - physical working capacity at pulse of 170 beats/min. Two rather small loadings on the stationary bicycle (on 5min are offered the examinee. everyone, with a rest interval 3min.). At the end of each loading (on reaching a steady state) heart rate is counted. Calculation is made on a formula: PWC170=N1 + (N2 — N* (170-f1/f2-f (– where N1 - the power of the first loading; N2moshchnost of the second loading; f1 - ChSS at the end of the first loading; f2 - ChSS at the end of the second loading. The settlement size MPK (l/min) is determined by V. L. Karpman's formula for persons with low degree of fitness: MPK=1,7*PWC170+124 (. Calculation of MPK for Dobeln's formula demands performance of single loading of the submaximum power on the stationary bicycle or in the Step test: MPK = 1,29 * a root from N/f-60*T where T - age coefficient; f-heart rate on the 5th minute of work; N - loading power.
On extent of impact on an organism in improving physical culture (as well as in sport distinguish threshold, optimum, peak loadings, and also over loading. However these concepts of rather physical culture make a bit different physiological sense.
It is proved that muscular activity causes effort of a stream of positive impulses in a cerebral cortex in people of brainwork and improves work of those its sites which are already included in a certain activity at present. Work, sport, physical culture are extremely important for health of each person.
It is much more difficult to define intensity which is meant as intensity of work and degree of its concentration in time. It is expressed also by nature of physiological and biochemical changes in an organism, degree of mental tension and characterized by intensity degree when performing any one exercise, or a share of total volume of high-speed, power exercises in the total amount of loading (relative intensity).
On average and advanced age against increase in volume of exercises for development of the general endurance and flexibility need of century loadings of high-speed and power character (decreases at a complete elimination of high-speed exercises). Besides, at persons 40 years crucial importance are more senior gets decrease in risk factors of IBS (normalization of a cholesteric exchange, arterial pressure and mass of bodies that is possible only when performing exercises of an aerobic orientation on endurance. Thus, the main type of loading used in improving physical culture - aerobic cyclic exercises. The most available and effective from them is jogging. In this regard physiological basics of training will be covered on the example of jogging. In case of use of other cyclic exercises the same principles of a dosage of a training load remain.
In improving training (as well as in sports) distinguish the following main components of loading defining its efficiency: loading type, loading size, duration (volume) and intensity, frequency of occupations, duration of intervals of rest between occupations.
Optimum loading is loading of such volume and intensity which gives the maximum improving effect for this individual. The zone of optimum loadings is limited from below to level threshold, and from above - the maximum loadings.